Alert! Hunger and Obesity on the Rise in Latin America for Third Year in a Row

Julio Berdegué, FAO representative for Latin America and the Caribbean, presents the region's Panorama of Food and Nutrition 2018 in Santiago, which has bad news due to the increase in hunger, malnutrition, overweight and obesity for the third consecutive year. Credit: Orlando Milesi/IPS

Julio Berdegué, FAO representative for Latin America and the
Caribbean, presents the region’s Panorama of Food and Nutrition
2018 in Santiago, which has bad news due to the increase in hunger,
malnutrition, overweight and obesity for the third consecutive
year. Credit: Orlando Milesi/IPS

By Orlando Milesi
SANTIAGO, Nov 8 2018 (IPS)

“For the third consecutive year there is bad news” for Latin
America and the Caribbean, where the numbers of hungry people have
increased to “39.3 million people,” or 6.1 percent of the
population, Julio Berdegué, FAO’s regional representative, said
Wednesday.

At the regional headquarters of the United Nations agency in
Santiago, Berdegué presented the conclusions of the Panorama of
Food and Nutrition Security 2018, which brings more bad news:
malnutrition and obesity also increased, in a situation closely
linked to the persistence of inequality in the countries of the
region.

The report was prepared jointly by the regional division of four
U.N. agencies: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation), the Pan
American Health Organisation (PAHO), the United Nations
Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the World Food Programme (WFP).

The four organisations called on governments in the region to
implement public policies that combat inequality and promote
healthy and sustainable food systems.”There is no material or
scientific reason to justify hunger…We are issuing a wake-up call
to governments and societies.” — Julio Berdegué

“There is no material or scientific reason to justify
hunger,” Berdegué said during the presentation, pointing out
that for the past five years, no progress has been made in the
region, and that it has in fact slid backwards for the past three
years.

“We are issuing a wake-up call to governments and
societies,” he said.

The regional representative highlighted the case of Colombia
where “peace has begun to pay dividends in the eradication of
hunger,” referring to the positive effects of the peace deal
reached by the government and the FARC guerrillas in 2016.

At the other extreme, Venezuela became one of the countries with
the greatest number of hungry people: 3.7 million – 11.7 percent
of the population.

Since 2014, the number of undernourished people has grown in
Argentina, Bolivia and Venezuela. The largest rise occurred in
Venezuela, with an increase of 600,000 people from 2014 to 2017,
according to the Panorama.

Other countries severely affected by hunger are Haiti – five
million people, equivalent to 45.7 percent of the population –
and Mexico – 4.8 million people, representing 3.8 percent of the
population.

However, in both Haiti and Mexico, hunger has declined in the
last three years. The same is true in Colombia and the Dominican
Republic. But these are the only four countries in the region that
managed to reduce hunger since 2014.

“If Haiti can do it (reduce hunger), all of the other
countries can, too,” Berdegué said emphatically.

According to the Panorama, the rate at which the number of
hungry people in the region grew accelerated: between 2015 and 2016
the number of undernourished increased by 200,000, but between 2016
and 2017, it grew by twice that number: 400,000 people.

For Berdegué, the numbers are dramatic because “it’s not
about being closer to the goal of zero hunger (by 2030). The goal
is not a few less hungry people,” he said, noting that this is a
food-producing and -exporting region, where “there is no lack of
food, what is missing is money to buy it.”

He added that serious food insecurity affects 47.1 million
people in Latin America and the Caribbean, and said “the worst
thing is that most of them live in South America, the richest part
of the region. How is it possible that 62 percent of the hungry are
in South America?”

The report establishes a close link between economic and social
inequality and higher levels of hunger, obesity and
malnutrition.

Five million children suffer from hunger, children in the
poorest segment of the population, who are “condemned to a very
limited life,” Berdegué said.

He pointed out that the four U.N. agencies found a correlation
between hunger and belonging to some ethnic groups.

Referring to indigenous groups, he noted that “In Peru, 25
percent of Quechua children and 23 percent of Aymara children
suffer from chronic malnutrition, while at the national level the
proportion is 16 percent.”

At the same time, the number of obese people is growing by 3.6
million each year, and today one in four adults in the region are
obese. And some 250 million people are overweight: 60 percent of
the regional population.

Overweight affects 3.9 million children under the age of five,
more than the global average of 5.6 per cent, the report says.

“It’s a rampant and out of control epidemic. We have never
eaten so badly. We have to make a shift towards a healthy and
nutritious diet,” Berdegué said.

He added that 18 countries in the region produce fruits and
vegetables, but export most of them.

“It is essential to regulate fats and salt content in food.
There are many people who can’t afford to eat healthy. School
curricula should include healthy eating,” Berdegué said,
suggesting possible solutions to deal with the epidemic.

Carissa F. Etienne, director of PAHO, said that “although
malnutrition persists in the region, particularly in vulnerable
populations, obesity and overweight also particularly affect these
groups.”

“A multisectoral approach is needed, ranging from ensuring
access to balanced and healthy food to addressing other social
factors that also impact on these forms of malnutrition, such as
access to education, water and sanitation, and health services,”
she said in a connection from the organisation’s Washington
headquarters.

In her view, “we must make progress in access to universal
health so that all people can receive the care and prevention
measures they need with regard to malnutrition and its long-term
consequences.”

The Panorama states that hunger, malnutrition, micronutrient
deficiencies, overweight and obesity especially affect lower-income
people, women, indigenous people, blacks and rural families in the
region.

In Latin America, 8.4 percent of women face severe food
insecurity, compared to 6.9 percent of men, and indigenous
populations are more food insecure than non-indigenous
populations.

In 10 countries, children from the poorest 20 percent of
households suffer three times more stunting than the richest 20
percent.

According to the report, one of the main causes of the rise in
malnutrition among particularly vulnerable population groups is
changes in the region’s food systems and food cycle from
production to consumption.

The greatest effects occur in the most excluded sectors which,
although they have increased their consumption of healthy foods
such as milk and meat, often have to opt for products high in fats,
sugar and salt because they are cheaper.

With respect to the gender divide, the Panorama reports that 19
million women suffer from severe food insecurity, compared to 15
million men.

In all of the countries, the obesity rate for adult women is
higher than for men; in 19 countries, the obesity rate for women is
at least 10 percentage points higher than for men.

“Gender equity is a valuable policy instrument to reduce
inequalities. We need to strengthen it in practice, which involves
promoting equality in access to and control of household resources,
as well as in decisions to empower women,” said Miguel Barreto,
WFP regional director, from Panama City.

The post
Alert! Hunger and Obesity on the Rise in Latin America for Third
Year in a Row
appeared first on Inter Press Service.

Source: FS – All – Food and Nutrition Blogs
Alert! Hunger and Obesity on the Rise in Latin America for Third Year in a Row